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Volume2, Number 1, Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 
Table of Contents 

Reading by Hand: The hap tic evaluation of artists' books, by Gary Frost 
Diagramming the Book Arts, by Johnny Carrera 
Beyond Velveeta, by Johanna Drucker 



All Shook Up: Interplay of image and text in the flag book structure, by Karen Hanmer 1 2 

2 Molded Paper Spine, by Donia Conn 

The Mystery of the Wire Loop: A query for investigation, By Eric Alstrom 
Tying up withVelcro™, by William Minter 
Practical Press, by Charles Schermerhorn 





Terra Australis: The artist book as philosophical approach to the world, byTommaso Durante 34 

Edelpappband / Millimeter Binding Bind- O -Rama 
Publication Review — William Anthony Fine Binder 
Advertise in the Bonefolder 
Submission Guidelines 

On the cover, Karen Hanmer s "Destination Moon/ 7 2003 





Editorial Board: 

Publisher & Editor /Reviewer: 

Peter D. Verheyen: Bookbinder & Conservator / Special 
Collections Preservation & Digital Access Librarian, Syracuse 
University Library, Syracuse, NY. 

Editors / Reviewers: 

Pamela Barrios: Conservator, Br igham Young University, 
Oren, UT. 

Donia Conn: Rare Book Conservator, Syracuse University 
Library, Syracuse, NY. 

Chela Metzger: Instructor, Kilgarlin Center for the 
Preservation of the Cultural Record, School of information, 
University of Texas at Austin. 

Don Rash: Fine and edition binder, Plains, PA. 

Full information on the Bonefolder, subscribing, contributin 
articles, and advertising, can be found at: 

<http: / /> 
To contact the editors, write to: 
The masthead design is by Don Rash 

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. 
The Book Arts Web /© 2004 
The Bonefolder (online) ISSN 1555-6565 




Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

Reading by Hand: The haptic evaluation 
of artists 7 books 

By Gary Frost 

Johanna Drucker's article, "Critical Issues /Exemplary 
Works", The Bonefolder, 1:2, 2005, has provided a great 
environment for evaluation of artists' books. She has 
suggested models of critical review in related fields of 
literature and art, mapped the taxonomy of types of artists' 
books and used carefully chosen terms. Much of Johanna's 
attention is on the project set by the artist and measurement 
of just how the work transforms, develops and presents this 
project. She has also emphasized the urgent need to establish 
methods for critical evaluation of book art. 

Are there any additional approaches that will assist 
evaluation of artistic works in a book format? I suggest that 
there is an additional topic that could propagate additional 

This topic is the aesthetic consequence of a work of 
book art in the hands of the reader where tactile qualities 
and features of mobility are appreciated. This is a haptic 
[pertaining to the technology of touch] domain where the 
study of touch as a mode of communication is at work. 
Such evaluations call up deeply embedded perceptions and 
sensory skills where the hands prompt the mind and where 
the reader's understanding can be far removed from the 
intentions of the artist. 

With all books, a large portion of the meaning is 
downstream. Each reader wishes the book to act out a bit 
of personal theater and I suggest that book art is special in 
this regard. This personal possession of the book experience 
would help to explain the persistent, low threshold of entry 
to the practice of making artists' books since the reader is 
well equipped to qualify anything quickly. Twenty six million 
people making hand made scrapbooks with artistic intentions 
know how to read an artists' book. 

But how can we provide effective description for a more 
critical experience of the corporeal book? We can lift it, open 
it and turn a page. Is it docile or springy on opening, solid 
or tentative on closing? Is there a live transmission of forces 
through the structure or is it crippled? What instigates the 
reader's ergonomic of comprehension and how are haptic 
features consequential to the evaluation of book art? 

It follows that haptic features are consequential for 
considering the often unconventional and experimental 
formats of artists' books. After thirty years of distribution 
of her flag book format, Hedi Kyle is still probably the only 

skilled reader of this acrobatic format. Meanwhile, the work 
of Susan Joy Share, featuring her brilliant performances of 
mobile and audible book structures, continues to present an 
immense challenge of understanding and assimilation for the 
book arts. Susan is the avatar of reading as dance. 

The haptic concern also follows from the peculiar essence 
of the book as hand held art. Books are only read at arms' 
length and are notoriously intractable in gallery display. This 
is a legacy of writing as a picture of speech and its early use as 
a handheld prompt. (1.) And the codex echoes its own legacy 
as a folded letter inviting unfolding and re-foldings. (2.) The 
whole environment of this experience is tactile, manipulative, 
confined, tricky and surprising. If critically pursued, the 
consciously hand investigated book could induce a greater 
appreciation of artists' books. 

Models of review 

A community of specialists should be acknowledged when 
considering the description of haptic and kenetic attributes 
of artists' books. This is the community of book conservators 
and other taxonomists of collections of material culture. 
George L. Stout, pioneer of descriptive terminology for art 
conservation, categorized the book as a "corporeal, built" 
object. (3.) This primary corporeal nature, both as an analogy 
to human anatomy and as a hand-held object, provides a 
primary descriptor of the physical book. The "built" qualifier 
is useful as well. Book making is highly sequential in accord 
with Johanna's emphasis on process. 

Entrancing descriptions of the anatomy, built nature, 
mobility and mortality of books are provided by book 
conservator Chris Clarkson. His descriptions achieve a 
level of critical appreciation of books and convey the deep 
historical perspective that Johanna recommends. Who 
would imagine that the graceful actions of early archival 
long- stitch binding could be expertly qualified as an artistic 
achievement or that any violation of its exemplary mobility 
could be expertly dismissed as a crippled pastiche? (Modern 
book artists using non- adhesive long- stitch structure should 
be challenged!) And who would imagine that much of the 
aesthetic attribute of the early archival long stitch book 
derives from tactile qualities? 

"A large measure of the very pleasant handling 
qualities of this limp vellum long- stitch binding is 
supplied by the supple character and velvet finish of 
the manuscript fragment used for the cover. The ease 
and good flowing action of this volume has much to 
do with a superb long- stitch technique. This is not at 
all easy to achieve. . ." Chris Clarkson(4.) 


Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 


Mapping taxonomy 

Knowing that the critical regard is out there is reassuring, 
but let's suggest some further steps. To profile the haptic 
nature of artists' books perhaps we should first focus on a 
fundamental shared orientation of the body and book. This 
first feature is a curious simultaneous bilateral symmetry and 
asymmetry; a fantastic attribute that is deeply embedded in 
both book and body. 

Our unique right or left handedness is the progenitor our 
crucial neural asymmetry of the brain. (5.) The asymmetry 
of the symmetrical codex is just as fundamental, but with 
a special twist. As the leaves change places with each other 
the right page becomes the left page as the clock of content 
goes forward. Two hands, each acting alone, hold the book 
and turn the page. This initially simple circumstance of 
symmetry/ asymmetry of the body and book is opened to 
endless permutations of artists' books. 

I want to position features of simultaneous bilateral 
symmetry and asymmetry of the book at the start. 
Asymmetries of the weights and pliancies of inner and 
outermost components of the book are sometimes striking 
and occasionally disconcerting. I would measure proportions 
of bilateral symmetry and asymmetry in books to tag classical 
types and eccentricities of artistic production. I would 
observe the asymmetrical fingerings of small books and 
the symmetrical arm's length approach needed for a large 
lectern book. I would particularly admire artists that engage 
both body and book and I would highly regard books that 
consciously interplay symmetries and asymmetries. 

Next I would address and qualify mobilities. Many artists' 
books have a rag doll mobility that does nothing to inform 
the curiosity of the hands and most artists' books lack the 
engineering that provides direct response to the leverages 
of handling. Especially likely to be crippled is the cover-to- 
text attachment. Have you ever encountered a book quick 
to open its covers, but reluctant to open its contents? This 
haptic conflict says something. What about a docile, flat 
opening almost defying the book's presence, or the possessed 
springiness of a vellum or polypropylene cover, or the stately, 
deep drape of a truly thick, fluffy book? Handling alone is a 
great way of reading books with such qualities. 

The range of mobilities can be considered, from the 
motions needed for a single sewing stitch to the trajectory 
and impact of a thrown book. Is the book really portable? 
How does it act in a high wind? Does the book move 
extremely slowly as adhered materials cup, warp and torque? 
The immobility of libraries is striking. Only the artist's book 
has the opportunity to overcome conventions of the stacks. It 

can twirl. We should have special regard for books that move 
and tumble on their own. A self moving book exploits the 
leverage that the reader applies to the boards of the cover. 
This transmitted board leverage is at work to open and close 
the book. An excellent book artist will not waste this energy, 
but transform it and, so, intervene in the actions of reading. 

The haptic legibility or manual readability of book is 
evaluated by touch, force and dwell. Some book surfaces 
adhere to the skin and feel warm producing an immediate 
pre-reading. Some books expel air on closing, others will not 
expel air between the leaves. Such responses can be subtle. 
Meaning is conveyed by the sigh of a closing Bible as well 
as by the yawn of a pop-up pictorial. Some artists' books 
provoke a quick manual inspection while others impose 
a longer dwell. Pace of manual reading is linked to haptic 
legibility with meaning in both quick and slow passes. 

Ultimately, there is a question if artists' books can be read 
primarily as works of pliant sculpture. I suggest that some 
artists' books can be read that way and most will benefit from 
such a reading as an accessory to overall evaluation. Evaluatin 
overall legibility of artists' books is a challenge. It can be 
difficult to assess them as literature and it can be difficult to 
assess them as art and many readers despair before trying. 
If artists' books are not particularly or critically regarded as 
literature or art, they should at least make statements and 
perform the somersaults that make them a book. A book is 
the one art object known to everyone. 

Clear terms and tabulation 

Clear terms improve the description of artists' books. 
But this truism may not fully apply to crucial evaluation of 
haptic features of book art. In fact the hands prompt the mind 
using nonlinguistic data. Historians remark on the lack of 
documentation of the hand skills. The needed realization is 
that dexterity itself is a medium of information. 

Imagine perceptions that can exist without words attached. 
This is equivalent to reading books which lack words or 
pictures, which, of course, we can. At a further stretch it is 
saying that books predate reading, which, of course they do. 
But the real shift here is that all books are art in a world of 
subtle and critical manual evaluation. If we could delineate it, 
a manual evaluation or haptic criticism would lay out a physics 
for book art criticism, using words. 

To tabulate haptic quality and evaluate given works a 
standard recording card is needed. This provisional card 
has three sectors; anatomy, action and handle. Anatomy 
describes the corporeal structure , action describes qualities 
of performance and mobility of that structure and handle 
describes evidence of haptic fabrication, use and function. The 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

check-off boxes can be marked to document the observed 
presence or the observed absence of any given quality. 

Anatomy (6.) 

Symmetry/ Asymmetry: [ ] static, mostly symmetrical [ ] 
balanced [ ] falling over, mostly asymmetrical 

Structure: [ ] classical [ ] hybrid [ ] experimental 

Folds: [ ] crease [ ] set [ ] jut [ ] yawn 

Stitch tension or fan splay: [ ] consistent [ ] erratic 
[ ] broken 

Action (7.) 

Mobility: [ ] stiff [ ] mechanical [ ] tumbling and wily 

Transmission of leverage: [ ] inert [ (crippled 
[ ] gymnastic 

Opening: [ ] docile [ ] cranky [ ] springy 
Leafing: [ ] syncopated [ ] sporadic 
Closing: [ ] conclusive | ] tentative [ ] given to gape 
Tossing: (8.) [ ] bounce [ ] no bounce 
Handle (9.) 

Evidence of hand craft: [ ] lean [ ] moderate [ ] rich 

Evidence of use: [ ] pristine, un-touched [ ] read, 
habituated to use [ ] possessed, consumed by 
passionate use 

Evidence of function: [ ] bewildered [ ] vernacular or 
liturgical [ ] poised, practical 

The use of such a card must be validated with many 
recordings of actual books. It will also be necessary to 
monitor manipulations associated with each measurement. 
The books must be actively read as the hands prompt the 
mind. An elegant expression of this process is provided by 
Adrian Johns. (I have inserted the term (artists' books)) 

"The reading of a book is no less skillful, and 
no less local, than conducting an experiment. To 
understand the transformation of science (artists' 
books) into an apparently universal culture, then, 
we need to create a history of the reading practices 
surrounding scientific books (artists' books) as 
detailed and intricate as the appreciation we already 
have of the experimental practices surrounding 
scientific instruments." Adrian Johns. (10.) 


(1 .) Chapter two, "The Written and Spoken Word", 
Martin, Henri-Jean, The History and Power ofWriting, 
discusses this relationship. 

(2.) The conjecture here is that circulation and copying 
of epistles among sectarians of late Antiquity is associated 
with the development of the papyrus codex. The 
impositions and securing ties of folded papyrus letters is 
suggestive of the early, single quire codices. See Papyrus, 
Parkinson, Richard and Quire, Stephen. 
(3.) I recall this characterization of the book from a 1972 
lecture. It is in early AIC PrePrints. 
(4.) "The Conservation of Early Books in Codex Form", 
Clarkson, Christopher, The Paper Conservator, Volume 
3, 1978. This graceful manifesto of the early book as the 
exemplar of past craft skills and sensitivity provides a 
basis for hap tic evaluation of any book. 
(5.) This precept of connectivity between asymmetrical 
use of the hands and subsequent neural distinction of 
the hominid brain is presented in Wilson, Frank R., 
The Hand, Pantheon, 1998 and Calvin, William H., The 
Throwing Madonna, McGraw-Hill, 1991 . "Of all the known 
lateralizations, sequential muscle control seems most central to 
the others, such as language. And what could have resulted in 
sequential muscle control residing primarily on one side of the 
brain? Well, an important muscle sequence involving primarily 
the opposite side of the body, rather than both sides equally or 
alternatively Say, hand writing or throwing or grooming or tool 
use. Surely handwriting wasn't the first "William Calvin 
(6.) Taxonomies exist that organize the structure of 
books, but these will lap other metadata entries and 
interrupt the receptive state of mind needed for haptic 

(7.) The tools here could possibly be augmented 
by models from choreographic notation or dance 

(8.) One strange evaluation of mobility involves toss 
testing in which the book must be thrown. This method is 
deeply embedded and goes all the way back through the 
hominid series where it is associated with the behavior of 
projectile predation since the book is a projectile thrown 
across time and cultures. "In the 1970's and 1980's I often 
demonstrated the essential strengths and character of limp vellum 
bindings, and how vulnerable parts of the book were protected, 
by throwing model structures high in the air and letting them 
bounce on t^eJIoor/Tntroduction to 2005 Reprint of Limp 
Vellum Binding, Chris Clarkson. (9.) No artists' book is as 
rich in handle as the demonstration copy that the artist 
uses in explanation. Think of a carpet salesman's swatch 
book or a limited edition binder's dummy. This charm has 
little to do with the bibliographic topic of the "materiality 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

of the text" which examines the physical book in culture 
contexts, but it does cross over with the bibliographer's 
interest in provenance where evidence of use is primary; 
a fundamental attribute of a book. 
(10.) P. 48, The Nature of the Book, Johns, Adrian, 
University of Chicago Press, 1998. 


Gary Frost is an educator in book art and book 
conservation. He has taught at the School of the Art 
Institute of Chicago, Columbia University in New York 
and the University of Texas at Austin. He is currently the 
Conservator for the Libraries at the University of Iowa. 
For more see <http: / / www.futureofthebook. com/>. 
He can be reached at <gary- > 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

Diagramming the Book Arts 

By Johnny Carrera 

I was recently a panelist at what I thought was a greatly 
thought-provoking ABC: Artist's Book Conference held at 
Wellesley College. During the course of the Conference, 
a key imbalance came up between Book Artists who are 
dissatisfied that their Book Art has not made it into the fine 
art sphere (commanding more substantial art prices and 
greater coverage) and the library curators, still the main 
market for Artist's Books, who contend that they cannot 
afford higher prices and that Artist's Books should best be 
housed with books. During the ensuing wildcard discussion, 
frustration over the dearth of scholarship on Artist's Books 
also came to the surface. 

The talk by Johanna Drucker that appeared in the Spring 
2005 Bonefolder is a great start to conceptualizing the field for 
more intelligent discussion. But for the visual artist, it seems 
that a visual aid might be a good addition. I am indebted 
to Richard Minsky for showing me the genius of using the 
term Book Art to distinguish books made by artists from the 
greater sphere of Book Arts. Hopefully a better visualization 
of the distinction will help ease the division between many 
Artists and Curators and might help further the discussion of 

Book Art. This framework of the field should give some peace 
to Fine Presses while giving direction to the artists who wish 
to have their work regarded as part the larger art world. This 
is illustrated by Venn diagram below. 

Book Art integrates and develops the three elements 
making up the realm of Book Arts; Image, Word, and Book 
Structure. I placed the subtext of "narrative" (one might 
substitute "sequence") in the Word sphere as there are many 
Artists' Books that have no text, but develop as the reader 
turns the pages or navigates the structure. Similarly, "concept" 
is added to Image, as the art of a book might be conceptual in 
nature. Fine Press books that are beautifully bound printings 
of celebrated literature are wonderful books, but should only 
be considered Book Art if the artist has created a binding or 
designed the printing in such a way as to enhance the reading 
experience to a greater degree, or integrated imagery in 
such a way that not simply illustrates the text, but makes 
it into something more. Often, offset books/ democratic 
multiples employ a simple binding, but as long as the content 
is developed in a strong sequential and visual manner, or 
literary and visual manner, they are also Book Art. Many 
children's books are such clever /beautiful combinations of 
the three spheres that they should also be included in the 
Book Art subset. The distinction between "Book Arts" and 
"Book Art" parallels the distinction between general fiction 


Book Arts 

Shaded areas 

Book Art 

Workthat combines the 
three spheres of Book 
Arts while developing at 
least two of these 
components to a high 





Print Suites 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

versus great literature, or illustration vs. artwork, and it is 
up to the individual artist in many cases through use of the 


artist statement to make the case that her work should be 
considered Book Art. 

Books in which the artist or artists have developed only the 
visual and book elements are surely part of the shaded Book 
Arts, but they lean more toward traditional conceptions of 
visual art. Many of these books lend themselves beautifully 
to exhibition. This is why I label this subset of Book Arts 
as Exhibition Books. Designer or Fine Bindings can surely 
be seen as artwork but have always seemed outside of the 
Book Art subset as they are only about the art of the binding 
- though they may respond to the content of a book, they 
rarely create content. By applying the need to develop the 
three spheres, most Designer Bindings don't merit the further 
distinction. The same applies for most, but not all, Livres 
D' Artistes. Just as a great work of fiction by Shakespeare is 
not an Artists' Book, a book only filled with great original 
prints by Picasso is not an Artists' Book. 

There are many Artist's Books that are mainly collections 
of marks or images and so have no narrative or development. 
Based on the criteria of the three spheres this type of book 
should be categorized with the Exhibition Books. Some 
collection books, such as Alphabet Books, might be thought 
of as visual reference books. While their sequence might not 
have any development, the correlation to a book type may 
allow one to make the case for some of them to be Book Art. 

This Book Art distinction may be artificial, but it is an 
effort to corral Artists' Books employing the three elements 
of book structure, language and visual art to understand (if 
only momentarily) "What is an Artists' Book?" Of course, the 
Book Art Realm is rife with book artists, myself included, 
who test the boundaries between books and art. It may 
be a subtle distinction in many Artists' Books whether it 
is a static or sequential object, or whether it is a beautiful 
book or a commentary on beautiful books; necessitating a 
more conceptual discussion of our work if we wish it to be 
considered by the art world at large. Though I have recently 
been working in the Fine Press tradition, I perform the tasks 
of designer/ author/ printer as an artist. Though I consider 
it to be of the highest order of Art, much of my Book Art is 
still best suited for libraries. (Perhaps I'm still in the thrall 
of the conference which was focused primarily from the 
librarian's perspective.) But the ABC Conference reminded 
me that though our books are locked in Special Collections, a 
host of wonderful curators are getting as many people to see 
and handle our books as possible. (And this is the goal, isn't 
it?) However, some of my work has such a high conceptual 
or visual element I want it to be appreciated by an "art 
audience." But, Book Art does not display as well as Exhibition 

Books which suggests that I may need to present my books 
differently, or develop innovative methods of display to 
interest galleries if my work is to make the leap. If I want my 
work to span both worlds, I will have to learn to play at both 
games. (One effort I have made to this end is always leaving a 
book unbound for wall displays to accompany the bound copy 
that becomes a "Book Object" in a glass case.) 

MaxYela made a fascinating comment in the Librarians 
panel about criteria for collecting artists' books. Yela stated 
that as a librarian he is trying to be representative of what is 
being done — thinking in terms of archiving a movement to 
preserve culture for future generations. Seeing our books as 
archival specimens rather than pieces of artwork may seem 
insulting to the artists, but Yela 's comments are completely on 
target as a Librarian. Libraries are not supposed to be making 
artistic judgments as much as preserving what is meaningful 
to our society. And, as long as libraries have the money to buy 
the majority of what we make (according to their collection 
criteria) we can't really complain. It is too bad they can't pay 
us "art world" prices, but it is much easier selling this way 
than selling work in a gallery. 

Perhaps this easy library market is the reason why Book 
Artists have not broken into the craft/ fine art universe 
more. It is wonderful that our books can be seen by people 
visiting library collections, but if we want the art world to 
see our work, it is our responsibility as artists to promote our 
work just as artists have throughout time. Libraries have no 
incentive to do so. We need to drum up excitement from the 
public. We need to get newspaper articles written, and expose 
new, vocal audiences to our work - then the scholarship and 
exhibits will follow. I get frustrated that every newspaper 
article I see reads as if a Book Artist or show of Artists' Books 
has somehow appeared out of a vacuum. 

The good news is that this IS happening. A public awareness 
is growing. More people are showing Artists' Books and 
taking classes which will create a greater appreciation for the 
craft and the art. Hopefully this enthusiasm will lead to more 
alleries devoted to Book Art and Exhibition Books. 

The final truth is that anything elevated to a high enough 
level of thought and devotion and execution should be 
considered ART. (Perhaps my tongue-in-cheek definition of 
art as "Anything that doesn't make money," might also be 
of solace to my fellow Book Artists.) The traveling shows of 
Automobiles and Motorcycles and Guitars in the "Classic Art" 
Museums is proof that society might someday accept the idea 
that anything can be elevated to art. Until that time, for the 
academics and those who need guidance, perhaps definitions 
and diagrams will be useful. 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

Johnny Carrera graduated from the bookbinding 
program taught by Sally Key at the North Bennet Street 
School in 1996. He has performed book repair, book 
conservation and taught Book Arts and bookbinding 
technique at Oberlin College and elsewhere. His 
Artists' Books include "Putrefatti," with Sam Walker, 
created for the "Science and the Artists' Book" exhibit; 
"Get Me the President!" with Martha Kearsley; "A Walk 
Through the Woods," and the forthcoming Pictorial 
Webster's, an Artist's Book in the Fine Press tradition. 
His books are included in library special collections, 
art libraries, rare book libraries, print departments of 
museums, and in private collections. His website is at 
<http:/ />. He can be reached at 
<cquercus@ix.netcom . com > . 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 


Beyond Velveeta 

By Johanna Drucker 

Asking for critical study in the field of artists' books is 
akin to calling for a capacity to distinguish between Velveeta 
and real cheese. If you can't tell the difference between a 
yellow-pseudo-cheese-food substance and a gorgonzola, 
cheddar, or fresh mozzarella, then you can likely be happy in 
the amateurish mind set of everybody-loves-everything that 
eschews "critical" thought as if it were a form of S&M or final 
Judgment. Maytag Blue may appeal to a different palate than 
does Aged Gouda— and doesn't everyone prefer a good, ripe 
Brie to a flavorless bad one? Critical discourse provides a 
language for such distinctions. 

For instance, Gary Frost's proposal puts idea of "the haptic" 
into play. He calls for attention to dynamics and mobilities. 
Books are physical objects and our tactile experience of and 
with them is part of their multi- dimensional potential to 
effect meaning. We wouldn't want to confuse the "literal" 
physical book with the virtual "phenomenal" work. The haptic 
could tend towards a literalist conflation of the object and 
the experience. But Frost knows whereof he speaks in calling 
for attention to the active, dynamic properties of books as 
meaning-producing-instruments.The devil is always in the 
application. His principles beg to be demonstrated in a case 
study. If I were to pick my this -week's favorite new book 
object, Clif Meador's Tourist /Refugee project for Art Journal, 
I'd be inclined to question whether the haptic does much 
after the initial location of the object in cultural space. The 
strength of this little gem, a quicksilver minnow of a book, is 
in the way it quickly, succinctly sets up its terms and makes 
use of them in an intelligent sequence of well- designed 
pages that make the most of the printing and paper choices 
that constrain the work (photographic, sepia and silver, 
positive and negative echoes and inversions, and then shifts 
scale in the final openings so that the images of those caught 
persons dissolve into halftone close-ups, mute, trapped, 
circumstantial) . The mobilities of this are conceptual and 
phenomenal, rather than literal, and the dynamism of its 
workings are at a level of cultural discourse, not just material 
"fact" in production terms. 

My response to Johnny Carerra's diagram comes directly 
from my enthusiasm for Frost's emphasis on mobility and 
dynamism. The diagram is too rigid and too reductive. It 
suggests an "inside" and "outside" of the realm of artists' 
books. It also depends on the vague categories of craft, word, 
and image as the foundation of artists' books. These categories 
float. They are abstract, without any relation to specific 
cultural traditions or material practices. Many books lack 
words and many more lack images. And craft? Again, I point 

to Meador's Refugees and suggest that debates about whether 
or not it comes from a "craft" tradition would just polarize 
discussion to no useful end. 

Rather than a rigid, reductive scheme, we need an 
appreciation of the many traditions on which artists' books 
draw. These should be the traditions of publication and 
production that all contribute to contemporary book arts, not 
always all in equal measure: 

calligraphy and illumination in manuscripts 

literary publishing 

fine press 

livre d' artiste 

photographic albums 

documentary works 



journals and diaries 
exhibition catalogues 
performance records 
conceptual work 
minimalist work 
pop art and multiples 
graphic novels 

Looking across this field of fields, we are struck by 
the number of different concepts, design decisions, and 
production methods that can make a book "work" as a book. 
These traditions don't all share their same attitudes with 
respect to what matters. Where do we get hold of the basic 
distinction of conception values and production values on 
which critical purchase can be made? How are we going to 
talk about basic relations in books like sequence, turnings, 
openings, juxtaposition, flow, rupture, graphic organization, 
image and/ or textual substance. Contemporary book arts 
properly belong to and draw on all these traditions. They 
also are often painfully remote from any educated relation 
to literature, art, or criticism. Amateur art may sometimes 
succeed by originality or imagination. Suggesting the entire 
field of artists' books can retain its innocence by ignoring 
critical discourse is as preposterous as suggesting we're all 
outsider artists. Amateur criticism is just ignorant. Criticism 
is not a school-yard game of who's "in" and "out." 

Criticism is a meta- language for talking about works of 
art. For instance: If you think colored paper cut-outs make 
a great artist's book, then you ought to be able to develop an 
argument that places them in relation to the one (arguably 
only) such work, Matisse's fazz. That argument should also 
demonstrate that the work in question is distinguishable from 
the elementary school classroom projects these craft-based 
paper sculptures tend to resemble. 

Volume 2. Number 1 . Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

Popular acclaim is not sufficient to make a work important. 
If it were, then Griffin and Sabine would be THE great artists' 
book of the late 20 th century and Your Co-Worker Could be a 
Space Alien, Nurse Duck, The String Book, and L.A.A.l.K. would 
be losers. 

We need to educate ourselves. The whine of undergrads 
who find any reading too difficult is no excuse for abandoning 
our educational responsibility. The complaints of grad 
students who find critical reading "too hard" is a failure of 
pedagogy. Puff and fluff pieces are not criticism. Criticism 
attempts to articulate principles from cases, not raise praise 
souffles of empty publicity. Critical writing asks: what is the 
project of this work? What are its premises and principles? 
And answers by addressing whether or not the work succeeds 
on those terms, but also, were the terms worthwhile and 
interesting to begin with. Conception values and production 
values are always in dialogue in a work of art. How? 

The metadata outline I've proposed to structure the 
ABsOnline project contains no field for ratings. No stars, 
half- stars, thumbs up or down, no place to write "this book 
stinks" or "is the greatest thing since whatever" anywhere. So 
I find the fright taken by a community of artists at the idea of 
filling in a form about their own work quite amusing. Does 
being asked to say something about the aesthetic tradition in 
which you are working really scare you off like bunnies fleeing 
sparklers at a backyard bar-b-q? I invite anyone interested to 
take a look at the data structure and see what it will allow us 
to learn about the field of artists' books. 

A community of artists that wants their work taken 
seriously must begin by setting serious terms for 
understanding their own work. 

Johanna Drucker <http:/ / www. people. Virginia. 
edu/~jrd8e/> has published and lectured extensively 
on topics related to the history of typography, artists' 
books, and visual art. She is currently the Robertson 
Professor of Media Studies at the University of Virginia 
where she is Professor in the Department of English and 
Director of Media Studies. Her scholarly books include: 
Theorizing Modernism (Columbia University Press, 
1994), The Visible Word: Experimental Typography and 
Modern Art (University of Chicago Press, 1994); The 
Alphabetic Labyrinth (Thames and Hudson, 1995), and 
The Century of Artists' Books (Granary, 1995). Her most 
recent collection, Figuring the Word, was published in 
November, 1998, (Granary Books). 

In addition to her scholarly work, Drucker is 
internationally known as a book artist and experimental, 
visual poet. Her work has been exhibited and collected 

in special collections in libraries and museums including 
the Getty Center for the Humanities, the Whitney 
Museum of American Art in NewYork, the Marvin and 
Ruth Sackner Archive of Visual and Concrete Poetry, the 
NewYork Public Library, Houghton Library at Harvard 
University, and many others. Recent titles include 
Narratology (1994), Prove Before Laying (1997), The 
Word Made Flesh (1989; 1995) The History of the /my 
Wor(l)d (1990; 1994), Night Crawlers on the Web 
(2000), Nova Reperta.QABbooks, 1999), Emerging 
Sentience (JABbooks 2001), the last two in collaboration 
with Brad Freeman. A GirTs Life, a collaboration with 
painter Susan Bee, was published by Granary Books in 

Editor's Postscript 

Ms. Drucker 's original article in Vol. 1 , No. 2, of this 
journal unleashed a number of responses, two of which are 
published in this issue of the Bonefolder, as well as a very 
spirited discussion that took place on the Book_Arts-L 
listserv and on several classroom blogs. As may be inferred 
Ms Drucker 's article touched a nerve, especially regarding 
the issue of criticism and distinctions among the types of 
works and groups producing those works, but also about the 
need to be able to describe and explain one's work. A core 
aspect of the article is the Artists' Books Online metadata 
project in which an xml based schema is being developed to 
help describe artist's books holistically from the process of 
creation to the item in hand. When implemented, this will 
provide a very rich database facilitating research and the 
deeper discussion of artist's books as a genre and artform. 
As the online discussion developed, it was interesting to see 
artist's themselves begin to describe their work and adapt the 
schema to a simple template which would accompany works 
when sold or exhibited providing information vital to the 
proper description of these books in library catalogs and other 
descriptive tools. It is the editors' hope that this discussion 
continues to contribute to the greater understanding of the 
book arts. 

These discussions can be found in the June 2005 archives 
of Book_Arts-L listserv, using among other subject lines such 
as Drucker Article, Druckergate and "Drucker 's Gate," and 
ultimately in July of 2005 under "Artist Book Information 


Artists' Books Online <http:/ /etext. lib. 
collections/ projects/ abonline/ index, html > 

Book_Arts-L <http:/ /> 


Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 


All Shook Up: Interplay of image and 
text in the flag book structure 

By Karen Hanmer 

Figure 1 , All Shook Up, 1998. 

The foundation of the deceptively simple "flag book" 
structure is an accordion folded spine. Rows of flags attached 
to opposing sides of each of the spine's "mountain" folds allow 
the artist to fragment and layer a number of complementary 
or contrasting images and narratives. When read page by 
page, the viewer sees disjointed fragments of image and text. 
When the spine is pulled fully open, these fragments assemble 
a panoramic spread. This transformation is accompanied by 
a delightful flapping sound. The spine and covers provide 
opportunities for additional imagery. 

My first flag book, Letter Home (Figure 3), pairs a family 
reunion photo with a young Navy wife's letter written from 
1950s Italy to her family on the farm. A second brief narrative 
details the woman's reinvention of herself. 

7 s 

Figure 3, Letter Home, 1998. 

After I had learned to better take advantage of the flag book 
structure's many surfaces, I updated Letter Home by adding 
more of the family reunion photo to the inside covers and 
spine, a photo of the woman in Florence to the outer covers, 
and a view from her apartment in Naples to the outside of the 
spine (Figure 4) . 

Figure 2 , View from above showing page attachment on 
opposing sides of accordion folded spine. 

Philadelphia book artist and conservator Hedi Kyle created 
the first flag book, April Diary, in 1979. I first saw a flag book, 
Susan King's 1983 Women and Cars, in an introductory artists' 
books class at Columbia College Chicago Center for Book and 
Paper Arts. Women and Cars layers autobiographical narrative, 
vintage photographs, and literary quotes from various 
sources. I had never seen anything like this simple structure 
that could function as a traditional codex, a sculpture and a 
puzzle; that could both reveal and conceal its richly layered 




a 1 

Figure 4, Letter Home (III), 2004. 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 


Direction of assembly 

This article will present two variations of the flag book 
structure. For lack of existing terminology I will refer to 
them as the "stepped" style and the "consolidated" style. The 
stepped style is the more common, and has been pictured 
in the Figures above. When the book is pulled fully open, 
the panoramic image is assembled as a series of overlapping 

In the consolidated style, pictured below in Figure 5, the 
flag book pulls open to assemble a complete picture with no 

Figure 5, Consolidated style flag book. 


The rough prototypes below illustrate some of the issues I 
would consider when creating a new flag book. Figure 6, left, 
is an archival photograph as I downloaded it from the National 
Archives website. 

Cropping of image 

Figure 6, right, is the same image as I will use it, cropped 
tightly around the Figures. Note that I am splitting the 
photograph into three rows of flags of unequal height, using 
an architectural element and the desk as dividing points. I 
could, but I am not, fragmenting the Figures vertically. 

Figure 6 , Archival image (left) , and image as cropped and 
separated into rows for use in flag book (right) . 

When I assemble the book, I have a choice of attaching 
the top and bottom rows of flags to right or the left side of 
the first mountain fold of the accordion (see Figure 2). The 
center row will be attached to the opposing side of that fold. 
This choice can alter the emphasis of the photo. Figure 7, top, 
focuses on Nixon admiring Elvis' cufflink. Figure 7, bottom, 
places more emphasis on the man observing the meeting. 

Figure 7, The same image assembled in opposite directions 
can alter the emphasis of the image. 

The direction of motion can also be altered. The Wright 
Flyer appears to be moving to the left in Figure 8, top, and 
moving to the right in Figure 8, bottom. 


Figure 8 , The same image assembled in opposite directions 
can alter the direction of movement. 

Volume 2. Number 1 . Fall 200S 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 


Width of spine 

A spine with wider accordion segments will open further, 
giving a broader spread to the panoramic image. But wider 
accordion segments cover more of the rear of the flag to 
which they attach, leaving less room for text or image. 
Compare Figure 9 with its 2 inch wide spine segments to 
Figure 7 with spine segments only 1 inch wide. 

Figure 9, Flag book with wide accordion folded sections, 
compare to Figure 7 (bottom) with a spine half as wide. 

Choice of image 

In general, choose an image that conveys motion or 
emotion, is simple, and is graphically strong. An interesting 
structure will not save an uninteresting image. 

One of my current interests is women aviation pioneers. 
Their photographs are compelling, and the accomplishments 
of the women are impressive, but the flag book may not be 
the best to structure salute them (Figure 10). I experimented 
with different structures and instead settled on a pop up book 
for the women aviators. Fragmented faces may work better 
on an iconic image such as All Shook Up (Figure 1 ) . 

l i 


Figure 10, Fragmented face on unfamiliar image, compare 
to iconic image in Figure 1 . 

Which style better fits the image? 

This is mainly a matter of personal aesthetics. 
Experimentation is a good way to become familiar with the 
structure, and working intensely with any image will always 
yield ideas for future projects. Figure 1 1 illustrates the same 
photograph used in the both the consolidated and stepped 

Figure 1 1 ,The same image used in consolidated style (top), 
and stepped style (bottom) flag books. 

Sculptural concerns 

Flag books need not contain imagery. The structure offers 
much opportunity for experimentation with shape and color. 
The model in Figure 12 is an experiment with nesting shapes. 

Figure 1 2 , Sculptural possibilities 


Select a size that feels appropriate for your content, and 
has proportions that work with the images you want to use. I 
sometimes test the size and shape of a prototype for new book 
with several people to see how comfortably it fits in different 
sized hands. 

The width of the flags should be no wider than the width 
of the boards, so the flags will be fully concealed inside the 
covers when the book is closed. 

The amount of separation between the rows of flags should 
be small enough to keep the images somewhat connected, 
and large enough that the flags will not catch on each other 
and interfere with pulling the book fully open. A quarter inch 
separation is a good starting point for the stepped style. An 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

eighth of an inch gap should be adequate for the consolidated 

Each page of the flag book requires two folded segments of 
the accordion, plus two additional segments for attachment 
to the covers. (Refer again to Figure 2 for an illustration of 
the flags in relationship to the spine.) One inch wide spine 
segments are a good starting point. Thus for a typical flag 
book of seven pages, this would require a 16 inch wide spine. 

(2 segments @ 1 inch x 7 pages) + 2 segments for board 
attachment (d), 1 inch =16 inches 


I have been using Adobe Photoshop to lay out both my text 
and image pages. Quark or Adobe InDesign would provide 
increased control over text formatting. 

Image layout 

By hand: 

When I begin new book, I measure and trim the pages by 
hand for my first few prototypes. 

I print seven copies of the image, and measure and trim the 
first page to 5 inches wide, then divide the remaining portion 
of the image into six equal sections, as shown in Figure 13. 

Figure 13, Manually dividing an image into pages. 

I will cut each page progressively wider, then take all seven 
trimmed pages, jog them up to the cut edge (Figure 14) and 
cut the stack to 5 inches wide. 

Figure 14, Preparation to trim seven flag book pages to the 
correct width 

Covers and Spine: 

The layout of the covers and spine require no special 
preparation, just size the images as desired. I label the 
cover pieces inner or outer and rront or rear to avoid 
confusion during assembly. 

With Photoshop: 

The image that creates the panoramic spread when the flag 
book is pulled completely open can be landscape or portrait 
format, but the width of the image must be equal to or 
reater than the width of the book's covers. 

First format the image to the correct height. This may 
require some cropping, stretching or other finessing of the 
image so that it separates into the desired number of rows 
of flags without a break at an awkward place. Although three 
rows is common, a flag book can have more or fewer rows, 
and the rows need not be of equal height. 

For the purposes of this article, assume a book of seven 
pages, 5 inches wide. Each page will be split into three rows 
of flags. 

Figure 1 5 is a Photoshop screen shot showing layout for 
image pages: 

Set up horizontal guides (a feature in Photoshop on the 
"View" menu) to show where each text page will be cut into 
individual rows of flags. 


Now the image must be divided vertically into seven pages, 
and each page saved as a separate file. 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 


Measuring from the left of the image, make a vertical guide 
at 5 inches. That first 5 inches of image will become the first 

Now measure the remaining portion of the image, and 
divide that into six equal sections. I add an additional vertical 
guide at each of these breaks. These guides are equivalent to 
the hand drawn tick marks in Figure 1 3 . 

OQ B.Ttf » 3 7% jPuotamj'B) 

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1 1 1 1 1 L 1 

I 6 1 I 7 1 1 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

Figure 1 5 , Photoshop file used to create pages for 
panoramic image, showing horizontal guides for separation 
into rows of flags and vertical guides to denote right edges for 
each of seven image pages. 

Crop to the first 5 inches and save the file, with the file 
name "Pagel". 

Type "Undo" to revert to the entire image 

To make pages 2-7, march along with the crop tool, 
measuring a 5 inch wide swath that ends on the right at each 
successive vertical guide (Figure 16). Crop, rename the file 
with the successive page number, type "undo" and crop and 
save again until you have created all seven page files. 

Figure 16, Cropping to create a file for image page 4. 
Text layout 

I begin with pencil and paper, experimenting with how I 
might edit the text and split each passage across seven pages. 
Then I lay out both text passages in a table in my text editing 
program, the two columns representing page spreads in the 
flag book (Figure 1 7) . 

iff x\ (njn oo< 

" H 1 1 1 I 

, . , | , I l*| I . . j 4 , 


■ Mi 

i*i ■ i , t , , ,1 ■ , , 1. 1 * 

1 ' ' * ' • ' ■ ' * • ■ 

Fot many year* I have been affltc trd 

with the belief that fkght a pouibie to man 

1 ha* not taken up the profatara wnh the eapertabon of 
trunaal prod NrMher do 1 Km any strong expectation 
of jch-s-wf the solution at the prevent tone or ponbty 
jny ome. 

My disease has mcrrawd m severity 

and 1 fed that it will toon cost me an uu i rased amount of 

money not my We 

k n the corrtplrxxy of ttw f*ymg problem "rwt makes « so 
dfcuk, k « not to be toVed by ttrnifctnc «4>on * secret, 
but by the pafMV* accumulation of nrormation upon j 
hundred drrWfert powtv 

I have been trying to arrange my affairs in such a way 

that I can devote my rntuc time for a few months to 
experiment in this held. 

tint t Mtiutwtw% that J< theve secrets hive been 
preserved for to marry years rust to that we could 
discover themf 

My general adrai of the subject ate unuiai to (tunc held 
by most ptactxal expettmentm. 

to wit that what a chiefly needed is skill lathei than 

Our rtens-a was agar around thnoucti the reacfcng of a 
book on cvrwholoey We could not undrmand thai therr 
was anyttwHt about a but! that would enable to « 0y that 
could not be tuft on a larger scale and used by man 

The flight of the buzzard and similar sailors a a 
convincing drmonstiatjon 

of the value of vkilL and the partial Heedlessness of motors 

The man who wishes to keep at a uiuuloii long tnouffx 
torealy team anythrs*. pout/very cannot take dangerous 
rrtkv Carelessness and BWwlM— are usuaty more 
danjerout than detberstefy accepted rnks 

It a possible to fly without motors, 
but not without knowledge- 5f skill 

If we al worked on the assumption that what n accepted 
a* true n reafty true, there would be Ittle hope of 

Thtt I conceive to be fortunate, tor man. by reason of ho 
greater intellect, 

can mot r reasonably hope to equal birds m knowledge, 
than to equal nature n the perfection of hex mac tunny. 

1 (Ot more fhnl out of ftyesg before 1 had ever been n the 
ar at al — wMe hung r> bed thntang how emtog « 
wouki be to ft* 

n m KL t P 

Figure 17, Two text passages laid out in a table to represent 
page spreads. 

Next I begin to feed the text page by page into a Photoshop 
file. The first page becomes a template for successive 
text pages, and for future flag book projects of the same 
dimensions. Figure 18 is a Photoshop screen print of this page 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

«g>0<"S Alosd»37X( U . PwcHOnc/H 

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■fan Ht gi t ; s po.M i H <' ma 


reference numbers 
1a, 1b, 1c aid in 
assembling flags 
into spine 

horizontal guides 
showing where 
page will be 
cut into flags 

vertical guides show 
left and right margins 
for text 

Figure 18, Photoshop file for text pages, showing vertical 
guides for margins, and horizontal guides for centering text 
and dividing page into rows of flags. 

I create horizontal guides corresponding to the guides on 
the image pages to show me where each text page will be cut 
into individual rows of flags. A second set of horizontal guides 
marks the center point of each flag to further placement of 
the text. 

I add vertical guides to show me the right and left text 
margins for each flag, keeping in mind that a portion of the 
imagery on each flag will be obscured in the area where it 
attaches to the spine. 

Reference numbers la, lb, lc will help me attach the flags 
to the spine in the right order. Numbers 1-7 will denote 
pages, letters a-c will denote top, center and bottom rows. 
Place the reference numbers in the zone that will be covered 
by the attachment to the spine. 

I often add an image on the text side of the flags, with the 
opacity set low enough that the text is easily legible. 


The consolidated style requires only one image page, 
the width of the spine paper minus its first and last folded 
segments. These two segments will be used for cover 

Cut this single image page into flags. Each flag should be as 
wide as two of the spine segments. Figure 19 illustrates these 
proportions. When laying out text or image for the rear of 
the flags, keep in mind that half of each flag will be obscured 
where it attaches to the spine. 


► * 
~~ I 






Figure 1 9 , Image layout and flag proportion relative to 
spine for consolidated style book. 


For boards I use Dark Grey Pamphlet Board or Grey/ 
White Archival Board from Archival Products. Both are very 
thin and lightweight, but also very dense and stiff. 

The book will open with a much more satisfying snap if the 
flags are made from heavier stock than the spine. Since I do 
my printing digitally, I use an inkjet coated paper for the flags, 
Hahnemuhle Photo Rag Duo 316. It is coated for inkjet on 
both sides, has a matte finish, and is relatively heavyweight. I 
use 65 or 80 lb. Mohawk Superfine Cover for the covers and 
spines. For early prototypes of a new piece, I laser print onto 
plain cardstock designed to go through a photocopier. 

I use Scotch 415 tape to attach the flags to the spine 
and the spine to the covers. This double stick tape does not 
cockle the paper as a wet adhesive may, and it is somewhat 
repositionable if I make an error in assembly. Over time the 
tape cures to form a very firm bond. 

Grain direction of the various components is illustrated 
in Figure 20. It is essential that the spine be folded with the 
grain. As in a flip book, the book will snap open more nicely 
if the grain of the flags runs perpendicular to the spine. As 
usual, grain on the cover boards is parallel to the spine. 


Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 







Figure 20, Grain direction for flag book components. 

I prefer a Teflon folder to a bone folder because it is less 
likely to mar the surface of the paper. I use a C-thru brand 
ruler, (a clear ruler printed with a red eighth inch grid) 
because it gives me the choice of measuring in inches, or 
just counting the number of little boxes printed on the ruler 
between two given points. 

To facilitate neat and consistent assembly of the flags, I have 
made a jig of a letter— sized scrap of book board. Two guides 
made of laminated stacks of board 5x2x1 / 8" are glued to the 
jig at right angles, providing a square corner for lining up the 
spine with the flags. 

Figure 2 1 , Tools and materials for assembly. 

Assembly of both variations of the structure are identical. 

Folding the spine 

I've chosen a flag book of seven pages for our example 
because that is the number that can be accommodated by 
an accordion folded into 16 segments. To assure a tidy spine 
with folded segments of equal dimensions, do not measure, 
score, then fold each segment separately. Rather fold the 
paper in half, and continue to fold those segments in half 
(see Appendix A: How to Fold an Accordion) . This method 
will yield a spine of 8 or 16 segments, or any number that is a 
power of two. 

Once the spine is folded, reverse all the folds (fold them 
backwards) and crease again. This additional working of the 
spine folds will assure a book that opens easily and fully. 

Attaching flags to spine 

Cut each of your seven image pages into three separate 
flags, and stack the flags for each row (top, center and 
bottom) at the edge of your work surface. 

Attach double stick tape to the rear (not the panoramic 
image side) of each flag, but do not yet remove the release 
paper from the tape (Figure 22). 

Figure 22, Applying double stick tape to flags. Flags 
arranged in stacks by row at edge of work surface. 

Use the jig to attach flags flush with the head (top) and tail 
(bottom) of the spine. Flags also may be positioned slightly in 
from the head and tail. However, if the book is exhibited, the 
curator (and viewers, if they are permitted) will likely stand 
the book up resting on its boards, spine and bottom row of 
flags. There will be less stress on the corners if the bottom 
row offl ags is flush with the bottom of the boards. 

Set the spine in your jig square against the two guides as in 
Figure 2 3 , and working from the top and back of the book 
(following page) remove the release tape and feed the flags 
into the spine, squared up against the top guide and the inner 
fold of the spine. Depending on whether the motion of your 
book goes from right to left or left to right, you may be 
placing the flag on the spine image side down, tape side up. 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

Finally, set the jig aside and add the center row of flags. 
Eyeball the position of the first flag, and use it as a guide for 
placement of subsequent flags (Figure 26). 

Figure 23, Attaching top row of flags to spine. 

Ease the next spine segment into place over the flag and rub c - ~ r A .. i. . c n 

r o r & Figure zb, Attaching center row or nags to spme. 

with your folder (Figure 24). 

Assembling covers 

The board covering method I use is also a Hedi Kyle 

Cut two boards the desired width by the height of the 
spine, grain parallel to the spine (Figure 27). 

Figure 24 



Repeat with remaining pages in the top row, then with the 
bottom row (Figure 25). 


outer wrapper inner wrapper 

Figure 27, Proper grain direction for cover components. 

Cut four paper covers to the following dimensions: 

The two inner wrappers should equal the width of the 
boards x the height plus 3 inches, grain direction parallel to 
the width of the board. 

The two outer wrappers should equal the height of the 
boards x the width plus 3 inches, grain direction parallel to 
the height of the board. 


Figure 25, Attaching bottom row of flags to spine. 

Volume 2. Number 1 . Fall 200S 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

Center a board inside one of the wrappers (Figure 28) 


Figure 28, Centering board in outer wrapper. 

Holding the paper and board firmly down on the bench, 
wrap one flap up and over the edge of the board and rub the 
edge, then the top surface with your folder (Figure 29). 

Figure 30, Flap of inner wrapper is inserted between outer 
wrapper and board. 

Tuck in the other flap snugly (Figure 31). Trimming the 
corners of the flap at a diagonal will ease insertion. 

Figure 29, Folding outer wrapper up and over the edge of 
the board. 

Repeat with other flap. 

Remove wrapper from board and set aside. Repeat 
procedure with remaining three wrappers. 

Replace the outer wrapper around the board. Tuck one 
flap of the inner wrapper between the outer wrapper and the 
board, and position it around the uncovered side of the board 
(Figure 30). 

Figure 31 , Outer wrapper covers front of board, inner 
wrapper covers rear of board. 

Volume 2. Number 1 . Fall 200S 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

Repeat with other board. Attaching spine to the covers APPENDIX A 

Attach a strip of double stick tape along the first and last 
segments of the spine, and remove enough release paper to 
fold a short tab towards the flags (Figure 32). 

Figure 32, Folding back tab of double stick tape release 
paper in preparation for insertion of spine into cover. 

Tuck the spine into the cover, carefully remove the release 
paper while firmly holding the cover and spine in place 
(Figure 33), and rub with a folder. 

How to fold an accordion 

For a very precisely folded spine, do not measure, score, 
then fold each segment separately. This is likely to result in 
accordion segments of unequal width. Instead fold the spine 
paper in half, and continue to fold each resulting section in 
half again until you have the desired number of sections. 

1 . Take the page and fold it in half, with the grain, making 
sure that the top, bottom, and side edges all line up directly 
on top of each other (Figure 34) . Crease the fold with your 

You will to refer to this initial fold with each subsequent 


Figure 33, Removing release paper from double stick after 
insertion of spine into cover. 

Leaf through your completed book, then enjoy the 
delightful flapping sound as you pull it fully open. Admire 
your craft and content and begin to plan your next book. 

Figure 34, Making the initial fold. 

I am right handed. At this point, I orient the paper so that 
the initial fold is on the left. I will keep the initial fold to the 
left for the remainder of the process. 

2. Fold the page once more, taking the top flap over to the 
initial fold, again lining up all three edges (Figure 35). Again 
use your folder to emphasize the fold. 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 


5 . Line up this reversed fold directly above your initial fold 
and crease (Figures 38-39). 

Figure 35, Folding the top section to the initial fold. 

3. Turn the page over and repeat. You will now have a spine 
folded into four equal segments 

4. Now reverse the top fold (the fold between the first and 
second spine segments) by turning it inside out (Figures 36- 

Figures 38-39, Bringing the reversed fold to directly above 
the initial fold. 

6. Take the cut edge, line it up above the initial fold and 
crease (Figures 40-41). Your spine will now be folded into 
four small and two large segments. 

Figures 36-37, Reversing the top fold. 

Volume 2. Number 1 . Fall 200S 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

Figures 40-41 , Folding the final sections of the accordion 
prior to flipping it over to continue. 

7. Turn the spine over, with the initial fold still facing left, 
and repeat steps 4-6. 

8. You will now have a spine with eight equal segments. To 
fold your spine into 16 segments, repeat steps 4-7, always 
beginning with the next fold up from the initial fold, and 
working your way to the top of the stack. 

If the spine paper is very stiff, or when precision folding 
is crucial, I square up the spine paper in the bed of my 
Kutrimmer and do the folding there (Figure 42). 

Figure 42 , Using the bed of a Kutrimmer as guide for 
precise folding 





Dark Grey Pamphlet Board and Grey/ White Archival 
Board are available from Archival Products in Iowa, <http:/ / 
www. archival . com> . 

Scotch 415 tape is available in several widths fromTalas. 
Talas also carries Teflon folders. <http:/ /www.talasonline. 

My source for Mohawk Superfine Cover is Dolphin Paper 

My source for Hahnemuhle Photo Rag Duo inkjet paper is 
Digital Art Supplies, <http:/ />. 

Flag Book examples 

The first flag book, Hedi Kyle's April Diary is pictured 
online at <http: / / images/kyle- 1 -jpg> • 

PDFs of two flag books, Susan King's Women and Cars and 
Ann Lovett's Relation, are accessible online by searching 
the archive of Women's Studio Workshop <http:/ /www. ab_ar chive. htm >. Relation is 
still in print, and is available via this website. 

Julie Chen's letterpress printed Listening has only two rows 
of flags and the text appears only on the spine: <http:/ / 
www.flyingfishpress. com/ gallery_listening.html> 

Emily Martin's Away is a consolidated style flag book: 
<http : / / www. lucidplanet . com / 1 WA / Featured Archive / 
MartinE / EMa Away, htm > 


Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

Women and Cars and other classic artists' books are discussed 
in detail in: 

Renee R. Hubert and Judd D. Hubert (1998). The Cutting 
Edge of Reading: Artists' Books, New York, NY: Granary 

The Oregon Book Arts Guild held a flag book exhibition in 
2002. The catalog is a flag book, and has small color photos 
of the more than 50 flag books in the show. Catalogs are still 
available for $10 from Patricia Grass, 1928 21st Ave., Forest 
24 Grove, OR 971 16. 

More of Karen Hanmer's flag books are pictured online at 
<http: / / flag/FlagPl .html> 


Thanks to Donia Conn, Robert Hanmer and Craig Jobson 
for reviewing this article; Emily Martin for assistance with 
terminology; and Jackie Ropski for modeling. Thanks to Julie 
Naggs for showing me how to make a flag book and much 
more. Many of the photographs in the books presented here 
are courtesy of the Library of Congress or National Archives. 
How-to photography and all books pictured are by the author. 

Chicago artist Karen Hanmer's sculptural books and 
installations fragment and layer text and image to mirror 
the experience of personal and cultural memory. Her 
books are meant to be handled; the intimate scale, choice 
of materials, and posture and gesture required to view 
each piece evoke the experience of looking through a 
photo album, diary, or the belongings of a loved one. 
However, her works often take playful forms, and many 
include tongue-in-cheek text. 

She exhibits widely, and her work is included in 
collections ranging from Tate Britain and the Denver 
Public Library to Syracuse University and Graceland. She 
lectures and teaches workshops on book arts and digital 
printing. Hanmer holds a degree in Economics from 
Northwestern University and studies traditional binding 
with Scott Kellar. She is an officer of Chicago Hand 
Bookbinders and the Guild of Bookworkers, Midwest 
Chapter. A complete catalog of her work is available 
online at <>. She can be 
reached at <> . 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

Molded Paper Spine 

By Donia Conn 

University libraries strive to provide their users with access 
to as broad a selection of resources as possible. Since those 
resources may have originated in different eras and countries, 
and were thus created using different processes and materials, 
maintenance and conservation requires a wide stock of 
repair supplies. Possibly the most expensive repair material 
is conservation- quality leather; that cost means it is simply 
not feasible to rebind entire sets of leather-bound volumes. 
But the alternatives, traditionally, have been less than ideal. In 
most academic institutions, repair of leather-bound volumes, 
therefore, requires creative selection and use of treatment 
materials. The most common material used for recovering 
books is contemporary bookcloth, and even the beautiful 
linen-finished Japanese bookcloth looks too modern, sharp 
and out of place on a book printed before 1 800. Because 
bookcloth is not moldable it ruins the aesthetics of books 
sewn on raised cords. It also stands out if used on one volume 
of a multi- volume set. A viable alternative for minor repairs 
is the Japanese paper repair technique developed by Don 
Etherington. For those books that need more extensive repair, 
a heavyweight, textured, moldable paper works very well and, 
when toned, is aesthetically pleasing on the shelf. 

Paper has been used in binding from as early as the 15 th 
century. Early bindings in paper were simple wrappers on 
single or multi-section works. By the 17 th century, heavier, 
case- weight papers were being made. This allowed for multi- 
sectioned books to be bound in limp cases. Later uses of 
the case-weight papers were to incorporate them into the 
foundations of case bindings. Limp paper bindings {note: as 
compared to the more common limp vellum of the previous 
centuries} typical of Italian imprints of the 17 th and 18 th 
centuries, were made from a single piece of heavy, or case- 
weight, paper. A German application of the case -weight paper 
was to use it as a bridge in the lapped case bindings of the 
18 th and 19 th centuries. The German lapped cover consists of 
two boards bridged by a molded piece of heavy, case weight, 
paper which is then covered by a single sheet of paper, usually 
a pulled paste paper. Both the limp paper and lapped bindings 
have withstood the test of time well. 

Still, time takes its toll. Conservators strive to preserve 
the beautiful handiwork of those days gone by in the face of 
smaller budgets and higher costs than even a few years ago. 
Many articles have been written about creative, non-leather 
conservation treatments for leather-bound 1 8 th and early 1 9 th 
century bindings in both circulating and special collections 
settings. This particular treatment is not intended to replace 

these but to add to the body of book conservation knowledge. 
This technique was developed in the Syracuse University 
Special Collections Research Center conservation lab. It came 
about as a combination of several treatments and philosophies 
encountered. The treatment's intent is to repair pre- 1800 
printed books in an academic research library in a manner 
similar to the original binding, but compatible, sympathetic 
and more stable. The treatment continues to develop as new 
applications are found and becomes more efficient the more 
treatments are completed. Because this technique is still 
developing, any comments and concerns are particularly 

Bindings of the period prior to the 1 9 th century shared 
certain similar, recognizable characteristics; in conservation 
rebinding, the best characteristics should be retained to the 
greatest possible degree. Although by this time bindings were 
"mass produced," they were still sewn on supports (raised or 
recessed) with some or all of these supports laced or attached 
to the binding in some way with a tight joint. Unfortunately, 
the thinly pared and poorly tanned leather on many of these 
volumes has failed. The lacing, subject to greater stress 
without the support of the leather, will also fail over time — 
necessitating a more invasive conservation treatment. Another 
undesirable characteristic of these books is the excessive spine 
linings of small volumes creating stiff openings that often lead 
to the failure of the binding. Finally, the tradition of oiling or 
dressing leather has helped lead to the weakening of the spine 
folds, sewing supports and sewing thread. 

When confronted with pre- 1 9 th century volumes needing 
rebinding or recasing, the following treatment procedure has 
proven structurally sound and aesthetically pleasing. 


Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 




Remove the old covers and clean the spine. 

If resewing: pull, wash and deacidify if desired, sew, 
paste up, round, back and line with tissue and cloth hinge. 
(Continue to Attaching Boards) 

If not resewing, line the spine with tissue and paste. 

Cut boards of an appropriate weight for the shoulder to 
height, leaving excess at the fore edge. 

Make tipped- on endsheets. Fold single folios of an 
appropriate paper to match the textblock and of a sufficient 
weight. Adhere tissue stubs. Crease to the height of the 
shoulder on the side of the folio that the tissue was stubbed. 

Tip the endsheets onto the textblock with paste by 
adhering the tissue stub to the spine of the book rather than 
the shoulder. Trim the endsheets. 

Back corner the boards and bevel (sand) the spine edge if 

Adhere the boards to the cloth hinge leaving a slight gap at 
the shoulder to prevent the attachment from being too tight. 


Cut a piece of toned, heavyweight, textured, moldable 
paper (e.g. Iowa PC4 or Cave Paper heavyweight natural) 
sized appropriately for a quarter binding. (A full binding in 
paper can be done. If doing a full paper binding, measure and 
trim the fore edge of the boards at this stage.) 

Sew or attach pre-made endbands. 

Adhere a cloth hinge to the spine with PVA. If the book has 
been sewn on raised cords, cut slits in the cloth the width of 
the spine or use a strip lining to prevent undue puckering at 
the shoulders. 

Volume 2. Number 1 . Fall 200S 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

Mist the center of the toned paper strip from the back — 
not too wet or it will cockle — then mold over the spine and 
place in a finishing press for flat spines or tying-up press if 
molding over raised cords. Let the spine piece dry in the 

If you wish to stamp a title directly onto the paper, do so at 
this stage. Make sure the stamping is done with the molded 
spine in the proper orientation. 


Cover the sides of the boards with marbled or paste paper 
or cloth. 

Adhere the pastedowns as in a standard case binding. Nip in 
the press to set and let dry under light weight. 

To adhere the molded spine piece to the book, glue up the 
molded paper only where it will be in contact with the boards 
and adhere. This will form a hollow spine that has a molded 
shape when closed. Do turn-ins as usual. When dry, measure 
and trim the fore edge of the boards. 

Set the joint. 

If the molded paper spine has not been directly stamped, 
labeling can be done using a printed paper or stamped leather 

Volume 2. Number 1 . Fall 200S 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 



To tone the Iowa PC4, Cave Paper, or any other suitable 
paper with texture, mix acrylics with methylcellulose or 
paste. Make sure there is sufficient color to ensure a deep, 
even tone. Make a test strip and allow to dry if matching a 
specific leather color. Mist out the paper to relax and expand 
it. Apply the color evenly but not heavily with a brush. After 
brushing on the color, rub the paper with the flat of the hand 
or a foam roller, dab with a damp sponge, or fold paper in half 
and then rub. Doing this removes the brush lines and creates a 
more leather- like look. Let the paper air- dry. 

Experiment with this paper in other binding projects. The 
possibilities are endless! 


Baird, Brian J. and LeTourneaux, Mick. "Treatment 305: 
A Collections Conservation Approach to Rebinding Laced- 
on-Board Binding Structures." The Book and Paper Group 
Annual, 13 (1994) p. 1-4. [An article on a method similar to this 
using cloth instead of paper] 

Cloonan, Michele V. Early Bindings in Paper. Boston: G.K. 
Hall and Co. 1991. 

Frost, Gary. "Conservation Binding Ideas." BookNote 1.5. 

Frost, Gary. "Historical Paper Case Binding and 
Conservation Rebinding." The New Bookbinder, 2 (1982) p. 

Rhodes, Barbara. "18 th and 19 th Century European and 
American Paper Binding Structures: A Case Study of Paper 
Bindings in the American Museum of Natural History 
Library." The Book and Paper Group Annual, 14 (1995) p. 51-62 

Donia Conn was introduced to bookbinding through 
a required art class at St. Olaf College in Minnesota. 
While a Ph. D. student in Mathematics at the University 
ofWisconsin — Madison, she started working with Jim 
Dast in the library's book repair department. After 
taking bookbinding classes at the Minnesota Center 
for Book Arts she entered the Conservation Studies 
program at the University of Texas — Austin. Donia has 
interned with Tony Cains at Trinity College, Dublin and 
J. Frank Mowery at the Folger Shakespeare Library in 
Washington DC and has worked as a book and paper 
conservator for various institutions across the US. 
Currently, she is the Rare Book Conservator at Syracuse 
(NY) University Library and a past Binder-in-Residence 
at Wells College in Aurora, NY. She can be reached at 
<bookconservator@yahoo. com>. 

The Bonefolder welcomes articles on new tech- 
niques and structures. If you have a new tech- 
nique you would like to share please contact the 
editors at <bonef older @philobiblon. com >. 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

The Mystery of the Wire Loop: A query 
for investigation 

By Eric Alstrom 
The Crime 

Over the last several years, books with a small wire loop 
have been found in at least three libraries across the United 
States. Initial inquiries found no satisfactory answer for their 
presence. Speculations ranged from some sort of security 
device (either to physically tie the book in place or as an early 
electronic detection system) or as a method of attaching a 
bookmark to the textblock. None of these suggestions seem 
plausible given the nature of the device. 

This is a query for more information about these devices. It 
is hoped that when other conservators have seen these loops 
or will in the future, they will forward this information to 
the author. This information will then be examined for an 
explanation and a catalog of books containing the loops will 
be created. A future report will hopefully reveal the solution 
to the mystery of the wire loop. 

Physical Description of the Culprit 

All of the loops seen thus far are similar in size and design. 
Both ends of the wire are inserted into a signature of the 
textblock near the head of the book. 


somethings. I hp 
st indication of nrs 
of the quotation with 
aptcr. Moreover, he 
3 the fret that vou 
you double your M 
o\Tble >x>ur product^ 
n with its contin^ 

; Ian *e £ SJ 

'refuse to *** 
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defensive, somcti 
a proud and hap; 

The wire is then twisted on itself for approximately 2 cm 
and ends in a small loop, approximately 5mm in diameter. 


The top half of the loop barely shows above the textblock, 
but it does not extend beyond the cover. 

The wire is a medium gauge, about .5mm in diameter with 
no visible coatings. For more images of the loop, please visit 
the author's webpage (see following page). 

The Victims... thus far 

Below is a list of confirmed sightings of the wire loop. If 
your library has a copy of any of these books, please check to 
see if it has the loop as well. 

Alexander Wicksteed. TenYears in Soviet Moscow. London: 
John Lane, The Bodley Head Ltd., 1933. (Last sighted at: 
Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.) 

Lord Edward Gleichen. A Guardsman's Memories. 
Edinburgh, London: W. Blackwood & Sons Ltd., 1932. Last 
sighted at: Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (The same title 
at Yale University had not been looped.) 

George E. Boxall. History of the Australian Bushrangers. 
London: T. Fisher, 1908. (Last sighted at: Arizona State 
University, Tempe, AZ.) 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 


There has been at least one other sighting in Arizona, but 
the title was not recorded. At the 2005 AIC conference, 
several people indicated they had seen the Loop in their 
Libraries, including Harvard, University of Texas and Duke. 
Stay tune for more information and sightings. 

The Investigation... Past, Present & Future 

To date, the books identified with these devices have 
been published in London by various firms between 1 908 
and 1933. Other than that, no definitive connections have 
been found. Further research needs to track factors such 
as printers, binders and the provenance of each volume. In 
one case, two different copies of the same book in different 
libraries did not both have the loop. The copy without the 
loop also showed no signs of ever having had one. 

Help with the Investigation 

If you see the loop in your library or any book, please let 
me know. Fill out the online survey <http:/ / www.lib.msu. 
edu/alstrom>, email <> or phone <517- 
432 -882 8 >. Thank you for your help in solving "The Mystery 
of the Wire Loop." 

Eric Alstrom received his MILS (Master of Information 
and Library Studies) at the University of Michigan, 
where he concentrated on archival management and 
interned at the Bentley Historical Library in conservation 
under the direction of James Craven. After graduation, 
Eric continued his training with Mr Craven for several 
years. During this time he also worked at the Bessenberg 
Bindery, a small hand-bindery in Ann Arbor. After 
working at the University of Michigan Special Collections 
Library, Eric became the collections conservator at 
Ohio University in Athens, Ohio. In 1998 he moved to 
New Hampshire to start the conservation program at 
Dartmouth College. While at Dartmouth, he designed 
the College's state-of-the-art conservation lab and taught 
in the College's Book Arts Program. In 2004, Eric 
returned to Michigan to head Michigan State University 
Library's conservation department. Eric also teaches 
book arts and conservation workshops and exhibits his 
fine bindings in both nationally and internationally. He is 
a member of the American Institute for Conservation and 
the Guild of Book Workers, for which he serves as the 
Publicity Chair and Webmaster. His work can be viewed 
at <>. His email is 
< alstrom (3) y msu . edu > . 

The Bonefolder welcomes articles on un- 
usual discoveries and structures. If you have 
discovered something unusual you would 
like to share please contact the editors at 
<bonef older @philobiblon. com > . 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

Tying up with Velcro™ 

By William Minter 


Here's a great idea for tying up books during rebacking. 
This method uses 2" wide Velcro™ straps. The hook portion is 
attached with double-sided adhesive to cloth covered boards 
(uncovered binder's boards will delaminate after a short 
time) ; the boards are cut to extend over the screws of the 
press, but have a notch so that they will hang in position when 
the press is elevated on bricks (as in this photo) . 

As in the above photo, the book is clamped between the 
Velcro™ boards as close to the spine as possible. When the 
original spine is in position, the Velcro™ is strapped across, 
being careful not to shift the spine while pulling, just as you 
would if using an Ace bandage to hold the spine down. The 
entire spine can be strapped, and the spine can be boned with 
little fear of crushing because of the soft-fuzzy nature of the 
material. Also, since it is a synthetic material, it rarely sticks 
with the adhesive. Then each strap can be individually undone 
to allow inspection and detailed boning of that area, and then 
the velcro is reattached. The amount of time to leave the 
Velcro™ in place is up to you. 

William Minter began his binding career when he 
started working for The Cuneo Press, Inc. in Chicago, 
where he met William Anthony, noted fine bookbinder 
and book conservator Following a seven-year 
apprenticeship with Anthony, Minter opened his shop 
in 1978 where he specialized in bookbinding and the 
conservation of rare books and manuscripts for university 
libraries, museums, rare book dealers, and private 
collectors. Occasionally he has executed a fine binding 
for commission or exibition. Since 1994, the business has 
been located in rural Pennsylvania. He can be reached at 
<> . 

Do you have a great idea or technical tip you 
would like to share? If so, please contact the 
editors at <bonef older @philobiblon. com >. 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 


Practical Press 

By Charles Schermerhorn,The New Leaf Book- 

While watching a major library's conservation technician 
demonstrate the basic repair of a book — clean spine, remove 
& replace case's stiffener, install new mull, end pages and 
headbands, then re -case — using a standard finishing /lying 
press, I was impressed by the awkwardness of the process 
which included putting the press on a box to hold it, inserting 
the book, tightening the screws, etc. 

When I set up my own shop I decided to make a press 
which would incorporate a frame of galvanized pipe and 
woodworker's clamps raising the press up off the surface of 
the bench and allowing the use of both hands. 

The design of this press allows the binder to insert thick 
books horizontally by laying the press on its side, to stand 
the press upright (as depicted) for spine cleaning, lining, or 
backing, or to stand the press on end to allow for two-handed 
shaping of headcaps. 

The drawing and text for building and using the press have 
been shared with dozens of binders, and I herewith give 
permission for others to do the same. 

The costs for building this press amount to less than $25, 
and the design requires a minimum of sawing, assembling, etc. 
Mine has been used hundreds of times on all sorts of work, 
and find it one of the handiest things in my shop. 

A diagram and instructions for construction appear below. 

Charles Schermerhom's 


1/2' galv. pipe 

woodscrew^; on each side of pipe 




3/4" floor 

bolted to 


Maple 2x4's 

Top edge of front 
board re»y r-f~\ 
be cut * 
on angle i 

pipe— mounted 



This version of the finishing press avoids the problems 
associated with traditional lying presses by holding the "jaws" 
above the surface of the bench, and permitting a variety 
of positions (on its side, or back) for ease of performing 
different tasks. 

The length of the 3/4" and 1 / 2" pipes is optional. In 
my case, I use 1 2" lengths for the uprights and 14" for the 
horizontals. It is not necessary for any of the pipes to be 
screwed tightly into their fittings, since the geometry of 
the press ensures stablity. The pipes are long enough to 
accommodate thick books with a backing board on each 
side. These can be loaded by turning the press on its back, 
tightening the clamping, and then returning it to upright for 
working. Standing the press on end, with the book fastened 
at an angle in the press and facing the worker, permits easy 
shaping of headcaps. 

The pipe clamps, in this case "Pony Clamps" are available 
at most good hardware stores. A hole is drilled in the face of 
each clamp to allow it to be secured to the wood. The part 
of the clamp with the locking plates sometimes cuts grooves 
into the pipe when clamped too tightly. These can be filed flat 
to prevent jamming. To release this part of the clamp more 
easily, press or tap the bottom end of the plates to loosen. 

Notes on Constructing the Schermerhorn 
Press Design 

By Pamela Barrios 

Admiring the simplicity and practicality of the design, I set 
out to make one. I found the parts readily available at Home 
Depot and Harbor Freight Tools, with the exception of the 
maple two by fours. Two by ones are available, though, in 
several hardwoods and can be laminated to make a more rigid 

I am not a woodworker, and I think the most difficult 
part of the process was drilling the holes at a perfect right 
angle without a drill press. I did not have a bit to put metal 
screws in the "Pony Clamps," but find the press easy enough 
to control without them, although not so elegant as Mr. 
Schermerhom's diagram. 

Lx2" base 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

Images of the Schermerhorn press as built by Pamela Barrios. 


Do you have a great idea or technical tip you 
would like to share? If so, please contact the 
editors at < 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 


Terra Australis: The artist's book as 
philosophical approach to the world 

ByTommaso Durante 

The World Wide Web allows us to travel across the various 
latitudes and longitudes in an easy way, without a visa. The 
entire context of globalization influences the way artists think 
and act, and the art itself makes the world its own material. 
The artist, under certain conditions, becomes a nomad who, 
urged on by thousands of reasons, travels continuously inside 
the space, both real and virtual, and sometimes backward in 
time, looking for some signal that can show the way. 

I am looking for my way too, and work around knowledge 
and ideas of materials that cover and translate a wide range 
of experiences: sculpture -installations, paintings and artist 

by other authors, they exist independently and combine 
themselves with my work without aiming to explain it. Only 
in Visio Mundi, published in 1999, is the text mine. The 
artwork originated with the wish to interpret the page as a 
"theatrum," a place of destruction and reconstruction, a place 
of meditation, a borderline between painting and writing. 
When my artist's books are published in limited edition, I 
realize something very close to an exhibition. Books are a 
medium of unique visual expression that can reach people in 
contexts different from the gallery environment. 

For me, artist's books are artworks in the shape of a book. 
Books as sculptures, texts as objects, objects as narrative 
literature: these are examples of various strategies that can 
be used to make books, where shape and content become 
the function of the same goal. The book can be a purely 
iconographic work, in which the images, the structure and 
the materials are themselves frequently the content. Usually, 
I make books using traditional bookmaking methods to create 
conceptually provocative artworks. Artist's books and paper 
sculptural books offer me the means to explore complex 
themes visually. They are also a philosophical vehicle for a 
very private approach to the world. Furthermore, they display 
creativity through the bidimensional and tridimensional 
aesthetic sensibility. 

Sometimes my artist's books are hand-made (unique 
works) , like sculptural paper, or they are printed in limited 
editions (occasionally in collaboration with philosophers, 
poets or scientists) . When there are texts in my books 

Terra Australis, my most recent artist's book, was created in 
the course of this research, and describes my move from Italy 
to Australia. My approach to my new country was strongly 
influenced by the great contrasts of a land surrounded by 
the oceans with a big, empty, desert at its heart. As an artist, 
I was also strongly attracted by the light and the texture of 
the various materials that are all part of these contrasts. On 
several trips I collected digital pictures of the soil, the rocks, 
and the trees, and then I worked out all images through a 
digital painting process in order to express my feelings about 
this mysterious land, using these materials as the exploration's 
starting point. 


Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

Tommaso Durante is a visual artist who has been 
producing paintings, sculptures, and artist's books for 25 
years. Before moving to Australia he taught history of art 
from 1997 to 2001 at the College for Classical Studies 
in Amalfi, Italy, and prior to that, from 1 990 to 1 996, 
visual art in several high schools. Recently his bookworks 
were exhibited in a solo show at the Cowen Gallery of 
the State Library of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia and in 
group exhibitions held in Noosa Regional Gallery, Noosa, 
QLD; Fremantle Arts Centre, Fremantle, WA; MPRG, 
Mornington, VIC; Mission Valley Library, Santa Fe, New 
Mexico; Mechanics' Institute Library, San Francisco, 
California; Department of Fine Arts, State University 
of California, San Luis Obispo, CA; Italian Institute 
of Philosophical Studies, Palazzo Serra di Cassano, 
Naples, Italy. His artist's books are also included in the 
"International Catalogue of Contemporary Fine Prints," 
the "Year Book 2004/ 2005 ," published by Bartkowiaks 
Forum Book Art in Hamburg, Germany, in "Books by 
Artists" in Italy 1960/ 1998, and the general catalogue of 
Italian artist's books, Piedmont Region, Turin, Italy. He 
can be reached at <> . 


Terra Australis is an artist's book made of holes, stones and 
water, soil and air. 

Every page opens on the edge of a measured visual abyss 
where the invitation to venture through the deep and 
impenetrable matter is both dangerous and real. Beyond the 
cold geography and frigid geometry it evokes, Terra Australis 
is an art work for the geographer of inwardness. The book 
is apparently engaged on the surface — but it is an art work 
pervaded by a silent darkness in which something endless 
is hidden, or escapes the eyes. The book is also physically 
punched by holes that change their position in the pages and 
evoke the Southern Cross in the Australian night sky. 

Usually my translation of the world tries to destroy the 
imitation of ideas by transposing them into other ideas: 
sculpture-installations, paintings and artist's books testify to a 
subjectivity that is creative, transitory, and not defined. 

The Bonefolder welcomes articles on signifi- 
cant binding and artist's book projects, one- 
of-a-kind or editioned. If you would like to 
share your project please contact the editors at 
<bonef older @philobiblon. com > . 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

Edelpappbcmd / Millimeter Binding 

Little known, what is referred to as the "millimeter" 
binding in North America, is a "nobler" version of the 
German "pappband," or paper binding, hence the name 
"edelpappband ." The technique is based on the German case 
(Bradel) binding which is covered in paper. What distinguishes 
the technique is that cloth, leather, or vellum trim is added 
at the head and tail, foredges, and/ or corners of the case for 
36 greater durability while making the book more elegant. 

This style of binding is well suited for smaller, thinner 
books, and with the right proportions, including very small 
squares and thin boards, creates an extremely elegant and 
precise binding suitable for editions as well as one-of-a-kind 
bindings. Full instructions to the technique were published in 
the prior issue of the Bonefolder (Vol. 1 , No. 2, 2005) along 
with a call for entries. 

In Denmark, a variant with the leather trim running along 
the entire length of the head and tail is referred to the as 
Rubow binding after the librarian who suggested it. 

Cathy Adelman, Malibu, CA, USA. 

The "edelpappband" is distinctly different from the "Danish 
millimeter" binding which has the shoulders backed to 90°, 
is made in-boards, and is covered with a full leather spine 
which is worked into the groove and is only visible for a few 
millimeters on the boards. 

Of the nineteen binders whose works are shown here, 
fourteen were first exposed to this technique through the 
earlier Bonefolder article. While the degree of precision 
varied with experience, it is exciting to see that these binders 
took up the challenge and hoped that they will continue to 
refine their technique and experiment. Unless otherwise 
indicated, first experiences with this technique were a result 
of the article published in the Bonefolder (Vol. 1 , No. 2, 

Peter Verheyen, Exhibit "Instigator" 

Franz Kafka, Josephine the Singer, Press Intermezzo. 

This millimeter binding is covered in paper designed by the 
binder, with leather trim at the head and tail of spine. Leather 
endbands, graphite edge, leather label, titled with foil. 20cm 
x 16 x 1cm. 

Introduced to this technique, along with 4 variations, by 
Edwin Heim at the Centro del Bel Libro. 

Adrienne Allen, Sydney, Australia. 

David Peters, detail ofheadcap. 

Jack McClaren, My Crowded Solitude, MacMillan 
Company, 1990. 

This book is about a coconut plantation as is reflected in 
the cover design, made in Illustrator 10 and printed on pale 
yellow Caslon "Print- On" paper. The paper was sprayed with 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

inkjet color fixative. The edges of the boards are covered with 
pale blue bookcloth.The endpapers are a deeper yellow. 22 x 
14 x 1.5cm. Bound 2005. 

Whitney Baker, Lawrence, KS, USA. 

Bruce Bumbarger, Haverford, PA, USA. 

Alvah Bessie's Spanish Civil War Notebooks, University 
Press of Kentucky, 2002. 

Paste paper covers (made by binder), orange goatskin trim 
at head and tail; laser-printed label on green Moriki, stuck- on 
commercial endbands. 21 x 13.5 x 2cm. Bound 2005. 

Lorraine Bates, Kin Kin, Sunshine Coast, Queensland, 







A. A. Milne, Winnie tiie Pooh. 

New endpapers printed with maps of the "100 Aker Wood." 
Covered in cream wallpaper with blue star motifs and Winnie 
the Pooh image (downloaded from Internet and printed on 
photo paper with inkjet printer) . Whisky kangaroo leather 
trim at foredges, tail of spine, and title panel at head of spine. 
Title blocked in cream foil. Dark blue kangaroo leather 
headbands. 19 x 13 x 2cm. Bound 2005. 


The New Bookbinder, 1986. 

Tan goatskin trim along head and tail, tan goatskin label, 
Swedish marbled Hahnemuhle paper, sewn silk headbands. 28 
x 22 x 1 .2cm. Bound 2005 . 

Taught by Fritz and Trudy Eberhardt, Harleysville, PA 

Donia Conn, Syracuse, NY, USA. 

B. A. St. Andrews, Learning from Renoir, Wells College 
Press, 2003. 

Hand made paste paper with indigo Cave Paper staggered 
head and tail. Invisible foredge of indigo Cave paper. Mottled 
acrylic edge to match pochoir frontispiece. Indigo Cave Paper 
wrapped endbands. 28.6 x 17.4 x 1 . lcm. Bound 2005. 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

Leigh Craven, Manlius, NY, USA. 

Lesa Dowd, Chicago, IL, USA. 


In Flight: Triennial Exhibition, Guild of Book Workers, 

Endpapers same as text; pastepaper endband (same as 
cover) around thread core; goat skin trim at head/ tail caps 
and along foredge; covered in handmade pastepaper. 26.5 x 
15.5 x 1cm. Bound 2005. 

Soline d'Haussy, Lawrence, KS, USA. 

Ann Camp, Pen Lettering, Dryad Press, Leicester. 

Speckled paper covers (made by binder) ; black calf 
skin; gold lettering achieved with a Kwickprint; stuck- on 
commercial endbands. 22 x 14.5 x 1.4cm. Bound 2005. 

Sample encapsulated volume sewn on linen tapes. Red 
elephant-hide endpapers. Rolled pastepaper endbands. Cover 
and onlays composed of various pastepapers (made by the 
binder). Purple Oasis goatskin at foredges, head of spine, and 
tail of spine. 19.5 x 18.3 x 1 .3cm. Bound 2005. 

Anna Embree, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA. 

Flat-back case binding; pastepaper with brown goatskin 
trim along entire head and tail. 25.7 x 16 x 1cm. Bound 

Donia Conn, detail of 
asymmetrical trim. 

Volume 2. Number 1 . Fall 200S 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

Anna Embree (cont.) 

Ethan Ensign, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. 


Case binding; pastepaper with brown goatskin trim along 
entire head and tail. 20.6 x 15.7 x 1.3cm. Bound 2005. 

Janet Engle, Upper Sandusky, Ohio, USA. 

Zitkala-Sa, Old Indian Legends. 

Bound with black cloth trim at head, tail, and foredges, 
covered with red pastepaper and decorated with strips of torn 
and cut mulberry paper in the design of a dreamcatcher. 22 x 
14.5 x 1cm. Bound 2005. 

Helmut Lehmann-Haupt, 100 Books About Bookbinding. 

Green Harmatan leather trim at foredges and endcaps, 
Swedish marbled paper on binding, paper label. 18.5 x 13.5 x 
1 .25cm. Bound 2005 . 

Darren A. Fuller, Navan, County Meath, Republic of 

R.D. Barnett, Illustrations of Old Testament History, 1977. 

The text is a British Museum catalogue of artifacts from the 
Old Testament period. Hand marbled endsheets; text sewn 
on tapes; hand- sewn endbands; black leather trim at head and 
tail; covered in marbled pink and gray paper, and over-printed 
with Medo-Persian design. Black paper spine label with gold 
colored foil titling. 24 x 16.5 x 2cm. Bound 2005. 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

Karen Hanmer, Glenview, IL, USA. 

David Peters, Leatherhead, UK. 


■ . □ 
■ 1 

• a 


• d ; 


* f 

^ IP 



Tiie Bedroom Companion, a 1938 compilation of naughty 
stories for men. 

Bookcloth made by binder from fabric reminiscent of 
hipsters dressing gown. Goatskin trim at foredges, head and 
tail. Edges colored with acrylic to match paper label. 23x16 
x 3.5cm. Bound 2005. 

Manuela Dunn, Saints, the Chosen Few. 

Gold goatskin trim along entire perimeter of case echoes 
gold edge on holy cards. Pale green Ingres endsheets and 
on case. Edges colored with gold acrylic. 23 x 19 x 2.5cm. 
Bound 2005. 

Kitchen Note Book. 

Text block of blank loose sheets oversewn; endpapers, 2 
double folio 130 gsm Snowdon Cartridge sewn all along and 
hook/linked to oversewing and tipped on; case covered in 
handmade Pineapple paper with Nigerian goatskin top edge 
and spine piece with cane cored headband; title free-hand 
tooled in gold using Vivaldi script matching the lettering on 
the front cover which is an inkjet print on matte paper and 
depicting an early Caribbean Kitchen. 30.5 x 21 .5 x 1 .5cm. 
Bound 2005. 

Don Rash, Plains, PA, USA. 

Clark Ashton Smith, Planets and Dimensions, Arkham 
House 1973. 

Marbled paper millimeter binding with black goatskin 
strips at head and tail. All edges graphite, Handsewn white 
silk endbands. Gray handmade paper endsheets. Cover 
paper marbled by the binder: graphite pigment on offwhite 
Hannemuhle Ingres. 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

This was a student piece done while studying with Trudi 
Eberhardt some 20 years ago, and thus has numerous flaws. 
I'm still fond of the cover marbling, though, which seems 
appropriate to the subject matter. 

Gregory Santos, Queens, NY, USA. 

Peter D. Verheyen, Syracuse, NY, USA. 

Sewn on three linen tapes; endsheets of cream Fabriano 
paper; endbands of pumpkin- colored Strathmore paper 
around thread core; natural goatskin trim running vertically 
down center of spine; covered in Nideggen paper. 18 x 1 1 .5 x 
1.6cm. Bound 2005. 

Betsey Stout, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. 

— — — ■ -v* 

Indische Miniaturen. 

Light green harmatan leather trim on top and bottom 
edges, blue ingres paper and decorative paper inset on front 
and rear boards. 19 x 12.5 x 1cm. Bound 2005. 

The Enchiridon of Epictetus, Press Intermezzo, 1997. 

Endpapers of red Roma paper; top edge gilt; endband of 
pastepaper around thread core, vellum trim along top and 
bottom edges; covered in hand-made pastepaper; title in gold 
on front cover. 16.5 x 12 x 1cm. Bound 2005. 

Fritz and Trudi Eberhardt, Rules for Bookbinders, The Boss 
Dog Press, 2003. 

Endpapers same as text; top edge in graphite and 
burnished; dark red leather endband around thread core; 
vellum trim at head/ tail caps with invisible corners; covered 
in handmade pastepaper; title in graphite on front cover. Soft 
"Ascona- style" slipcase covered in paper to match book with 
title in graphite on spine. 18 x 12.5 x 1cm. Bound 2005. 

Introduced to the technique during an internship at the 
Germanisches Nationalmuseum and formal apprenticeship at 
the Buchbinderei Klein, Gelsenkirchen, Germany. 


Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 


The following use the same underlying structure as 
the edelpappband / millimeter binding, but because 
they have full leather spines do not fit the criteria of 
the technique. 

Sherry Barber, Frisco, TX. 

Millimeter binding with French Chagrin spine and 
foredges, hand marbled papers by Catherine Levine on 
covers. 24.5 cm x 14.5 cm x 2.2cm. Bound 2005. 

Bruce Bumharger, detail 

Carole Vanderhoof, Lonely Pine Bindery, Rifton, NY, 

l A GORF/TTiy, 

■ ■ IK J 

i - 


Beethoven Piano Solos. 

Covered in Harmatan goatskin and pastepaper. The 
headband is gold velvet ribbon. Leather was used for trim on 
the spine and foredges. 33 x 26.5 x 2cm. Bound 2005 

My first instructor, trained in Stuttgart, Germany in the 
early 1930's, used this type of binding extensively. 


Karen Hanmer, detail of leather trim at tail. 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 

Publication Review 

Reviewed by Peter D. Verheyen 

William Anthony Fine Binder, Lawrence Yerkes ed., Iowa 
City: University Libraries, University of Iowa, 2005. 

William "Bill" Anthony (1926 — 1989) was arguably one 
of the most influential bookbinders and conservators in the 
US. His impact cannot be measured by his work alone but 
also by his legacy as demonstrated by all those he trained, 
many of whom are now leaders in the field in their own right. 
Lawrence Yerkes' forward and Helen Ryan's introduction to 
the catalog describe not only Anthony's life and work, but 
also the emotional bond they had with him and his spirit that 
touched so many. 

Anthony began his life as a binder at the age of seventeen 
when he served a seven-year apprenticeship with his father 
in Dublin, Ireland. He later worked as a journeyman binder 
in London, UK, studying at the Camberwell College of Art 
and exhibiting with the Guild of Contemporary Bookbinders, 
(the precursor organization of Designer Bookbinders). He 
emigrated to the United states in 1964, working first at the 
Cuneo Press in Chicago, then partnering with Hungarian- 
born binder Elizabeth Kner, and finally taking over the firm 
upon her retirement under the name Anthony and Associates. 
Anthony's last job was as conservator for the University of 
Iowa collections, where he continued to successfully train 
apprentices. The spectrum of his bookbinding work was 
broad, encompassing edition binding, fine binding, and 

To honor Anthony, the University of Iowa Libraries held a 
retrospective exhibition at the University of Iowa Museum 
of Art, April 1 5 -July 3 1 , 2005 , in which not only the breadth 
and beauty of his creative work were shown but also examples 
of his conservation treatments. The catalog of this exhibition 
depicts 41 of Anthony's "fine bindings" which demonstrate 
his great technical skill and keen aesthetic sensibilities. While 
most of these works are executed in full leather with onlays, 
blind, and/ or gold tooling, there are also several examples of 
his work in vellum. Though his background and training were 
English, it is clear from looking at Anthony's work that he 
studied, admired, and was influenced by the work of binders 
throughout Europe, blending their ideas with his to develop 
his own timeless style. Also depicted in the exhibit catalog are 
examples of some of his edition bindings and conservation 
treatments. Whatever style, his work was always technically 
and proportionately precise and polished. 

The continuing relevance of skills and design exemplified 
by Anthony in this catalog of his work is true even as aspects 
of the craft are slowly fading away — those with the skills 
to teach at this level are retiring and no longer teaching. 
The time required to master the work is hard to fit into 
today's world of non-linear cafeteria- style learning and 
weekend workshops. This learning style has replaced the 
rigid apprenticeship models experienced by Anthony and 
his students, now master craftsmen and artists in their own 
rights. While the book arts have changed dramatically over the 
past decades, away from traditional craft-based bookbinding 
to "artist's books" and more alternative structures, the skills 
and sense of design exemplified by Anthony's work remain as 
relevant as ever. 

The exhibition catalog was designed by Julie Leonard and 
SaraT. Sauers with photography by JillTobin. It is a fitting 
tribute to Anthony and makes an exceptional addition to the 
reference collections of binders and bibliophiles. The catalog 
can be ordered online from the University of Iowa Bookstore 
at <http:/ /www. html> for $39.95 
+ SH. 


Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 


Where did cARTalog Come from? The cARTalog grows from the empty drawers of the University 
of Iowa Libraries 7 main card catalog, which was retired in 2004. A small community of library staff— 
motivated by both nostalgia and library subculture— has come together to give the card catalog cards 
themselves a rebirth, in order to celebrate the role of this honorific icon within the world of libraries as well as 
the UI Libraries' sesquicentennial. Project organizers were able to salvage approximately only one quarter of 
the UFs card catalog for the cARTalog project; the remaining cards were hauled away to recycling. The UI 
Libraries is only one of several libraries that have sought to honor the waning card catalog with a lasting 
monument or ceremony. 

What is the hopeful goal? cARTalog hopes to find as many creative uses as possible for the salvaged 
card catalog cards and generate a sense of community among those who love the card catalog. The card 
catalog means different things to many people and the cARTalog project embraces this notion by encouraging 
anyone interested in working with our salvaged cards to do so. Participants include: 


artists (sculpture, mail art, book art, 
calligraphers, photographers) 
educators & students (K-12, college, 
graduate level) 

story tellers 

The active members of cARTalog are organizing larger scale projects, including: 

1. card ART in the schools (Iowa City community school district) 

2. Mail Art projects 

3. an exhibition of cARTalog projects at the UI Libraries 

4. permanent card catalog art installation 

5. a web page documenting the history of card catalogs and the cARTalog project 

HOW Can you get involved with cARTalog? You can get involved by participating in one of the 
above projects, or by creating your own. Projects could develop out of using a group of cards or simply one. 
You can respond to the cards format (size and material) or content (book title, subject words, author). You can 
submit and donate your piece to the cARTalog project* for it's growing collection OR, if you choose to keep 
your card catalog piece, we ask that you provide us with documentation (written and photographic if possible) 
so that we can document and credit your participation. 

For more information, or to participate in cARTalog, contact Kristin Baum, UI Libraries, 319.335.5503 or 

See <> for more information 

Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 



High-quality conservation of books, documents, art on paper and photographs. 

The Etherin&ton Conservation Center 
otters high-quality conservation of 
books, documents, art on paper and 
photographs. Our professional serv ices 
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Conservation of photographs, vellum and parchment 
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• Disaster recovery including fire, w ater, mold and insect 
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Etherington Conservation Center, Inc. 
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Web: Fax: 336-665-1319 

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Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 


Advertise in the Bonefolder 

The Bonefolder is an international journal for bookbinding 
and the book arts, which through its association with the Book 
Arts Web has the potential to reach on average 1500 viewers 
per week. Publication of the Bonefolder wi\\ be announced 
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and other topically related lists reaching many thousands of 

Though published in an online format we will present the 
Bonefolder as a print publication with keen attention paid to 
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The Bonefolder will be published on a semi-annual basis 
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In order to make the Bonefolder freely available, we will 
offer advertising space for sale at competitive rates. These 
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29.7 x 11.5 cm or 1 1" x 5 .5" vertical format 



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First Prize Winner receives a 56,000.00 commission. 


The book for the fourth triennial competition is 
Jorge Luis Borges's Ficciones, printed in a very limited 
edition at the Argentine fine press Ediciones Dos Amigos, 


Entries must be received by December 31, 2005. 


Awards will be announced in conjunction with a 
conference and exhibition in late Spring 2006, 


For more information and to register, 
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Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005 

The Bonefolder: an e-journal for the bookbinder and book artist 







The Bonefolder welcomes submissions of articles 
for publication. Articles should relate to the fields of 
bookbinding, book arts, decorative techniques, education, 
exhibition reviews, tips & tricks, or book reviews. Articles 
that have not be published elsewhere will be given first 

The language of the Bonefolder is English, though it may 
be possible to work with authors in the translation of non- 
English articles. 

Because the Bonefolder is published electronically we are 
able to reach a worldwide audience at minimal cost. Issues 
will be released as PDF files which can be opened with Adobe 
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Submitting your text: 

Only completed articles should be submitted to the 
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indicate position of graphics in text by placing the filename of 
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Articles may be included either as plain text in email 
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Microsoft Word or WordPerfect are the preferred file formats. 
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formats. Images should be sized to 1024 x 768 pixels if taken 
with a digital camera. If scanned or created digitally, save at 
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bit (256 shades of grey), and color as 24 bit. DO NOT embed 
images in body of text, but save separately and attach. 

Files should be named as follows 

The article (if not sent in email message body): 

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* Any references should be included in ( ) following the 
text they refer to. If links are included, include the full URL. 

Middleton, Bernard C. (1996). A History of English Craft 
Bookbinding, New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll Press. 

Etherington, Don and Matt Roberts (1982). 
Bookbinding and the Conservation of Books: A 
dictionary of descriptive terminology. Washington, D. C. : 
Government Printing Office. 

Files sent through regular postal mail on floppy diskettes or 
CD are also acceptable, provided they are in the PC format. If 
sending on disc, please write the editor for a mailing address. 


Authors retain copyright of their articles and are free to 
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Volume 2, Number 1 , Fall 2005